A treatise of human nature summary

a treatise of human nature summary

A, treatise of, human, nature work by hume britannica

David hume ( this book, published in two volumes called "books" by the author, is a treatment of everything from the origin of our ideas to how they are to be divided. It includes important statements of Scepticism and Hume's experimental method. Part 1 deals with the nature of ideas. Part 2 deals with the ideas of space and time. Part 3 deals with knowledge and probability. Part 4 deals with skeptical and other systems of philosophy, including a discussion of the soul and personal identity.

A, treatise of, human, nature (Abstract) - wikipedia

If it did not exceed the capacity of nature to foretell future events, it would be absurd to employ any prophecy as an argument for a divine mission or essay authority from heaven. So that, upon the whole, we may conclude, that the Christian Religion not only was at first attended with miracles, but even at this day cannot be believed by any reasonable person without one. Mere reason is insufficient to convince us of its veracity: And whoever is moved by faith to assent to it, is conscious of a continued miracle in his own person, which subverts all the principles of his understanding, and gives him a determination to believe. This is not the right way you should be approaching. Reading philosophy is not a race; people have their own paces and that's totally fine. The most important thing is that you understand the text, and to that extent you might consider touching base with professors or knowledgeable peers about some of the concepts you've read about. Hume is not known to be particularly hard to digest, but some concepts require a bit of context and insight into the jargon of the old days. Bottom line: don't worry about your speed, focus on comprehension. As always, we'll be here to answer any questions you may have, and chat is always available if you want to discuss ideas as well. Your pace is fine. You will find that it will improve over time as you read more, understand different authors writing styles, and understand more concepts in philosophy.

When we peruse the first histories of all nations, we are apt to imagine ourselves transported into some new world; where the whole frame of nature is disjointed, and every element performs its operations in a different manner, from what it does at present. Battles, revolutions, pestilence, famine and death, are never the effect of those natural causes, which we experience. Prodigies, omens, oracles, judgements, quite obscure the few natural events, that are intermingled with them. But as the former grow thinner every page, in proportion as we advance nearer the enlightened ages, we soon learn, that there is nothing mysterious or supernatural in the case, but that all proceeds from the usual propensity of mankind towards the marvellous, and that. 8 Upon the whole, then, it appears, that no testimony for any kind of miracle has ever amounted to a probability, much less to a proof; and that, even supposing it amounted to a proof, it would be opposed by another proof; derived from the. It is experience only, proposal which gives authority to human testimony; and it is the same experience, which assures us of the laws of nature. When, therefore, these two kinds of experience are contrary, we have nothing to do but subtract the one from the other, and embrace an opinion, either on one side or the other, with that assurance which arises from the remainder. But according to the principle here explained, this substraction, with regard to all popular religions, amounts to an entire annihilation; and therefore we may establish it as a maxim, that no human testimony can have such force as to prove a miracle, and make. 9 What we have said of miracles may be applied, without any variation, to prophecies; and indeed, all prophecies are real miracles, and as such only, can be admitted as proofs of any revelation.

a treatise of human nature summary

A, treatise of, human, nature - wikipedia

The passion of surprise and wonder, arising from miracles, being an agreeable emotion, gives a sensible tendency towards the belief of those events, from which it is derived. And this goes so far, that even those who cannot enjoy this pleasure immediately, nor can believe those miraculous events, of which they are informed, yet love with to partake of the satisfaction at second-hand or by rebound, and place a pride and delight in exciting. 6 With what greediness are the miraculous accounts of travellers received, their descriptions of sea and land monsters, their relations of wonderful adventures, strange men, and uncouth manners? But if the spirit of religion join itself to the love of wonder, there is an end of common sense; essay and human testimony, in these circumstances, loses all pretensions to authority. A religionist may be an enthusiast, and imagine he sees what has no reality: he may know his narrative to be false, and yet persevere in it, with the best intentions in the world, for the sake of promoting so holy a cause: or even. His auditors may not have, and commonly have not, sufficient judgement to canvass his evidence: what judgement they have, they renounce by principle, in these sublime and mysterious subjects: or if they were ever so willing to employ it, passion and a heated imagination disturb. Their credulity increases his impudence: and his impudence overpowers their credulity. It forms a strong presumption against all supernatural and miraculous relations, that they are observed chiefly to abound among ignorant and barbarous nations; or if a civilized people has ever given admission to any of them, that people will be found to have received them.

And as a uniform experience amounts to a proof, there is here a direct and full proof, from the nature of the fact, against the existence of any miracle; nor can such a proof be destroyed, or the miracle rendered credible, but by an opposite. 2 The plain consequence is (and it is a general maxim worthy of our attention That no testimony is sufficient to establish a miracle, unless the testimony be of such a kind, that its falsehood would be more miraculous, than the fact, which it endeavours. I weigh the one miracle against the other; and according to the superiority, which I discover, i pronounce my decision, and always reject the greater miracle. If the falsehood of his testimony would be more miraculous, than the event which he relates; then, and not till then, can he pretend to command my belief or opinion. 3 In the foregoing reasoning we have supposed, that the testimony, upon which a miracle is founded, may possibly amount to an entire proof, and that the falsehood of that testimony would be a real prodigy: But it is easy to shew, that we have. 4 For first, there is not to be found, in all history, any miracle attested by a sufficient number of men, of such unquestioned good-sense, education, and learning, as to secure us against all delusion in themselves; of such undoubted integrity, as to place them. We may observe in human nature a principle which, if strictly examined, will be found to diminish extremely the assurance, which we might, from human testimony, have, in any kind of prodigy. The maxim, by which we commonly conduct ourselves in our reasonings, is, that the objects, of which we have no experience, resemble those, of which we have; that what we have found to be most usual is always most probable; and that where there. But though, in proceeding by this rule, we readily reject any fact which is unusual and incredible in an ordinary degree; yet in advancing farther, the mind observes not always the same rule; but when anything is affirmed utterly absurd and miraculous, it rather the.

A treatise of human nature (Kniha, 1978) WorldCat

a treatise of human nature summary

A, treatise of, human, nature by david Hume - read Online

Where reason is lively, and mixes itself with some propensity, it ought to be assented. Where it does not, it never can have any title to operate upon. 5 At the time, therefore, that i am tired with amusement and company, and have indulged a reverie in my chamber, or in a solitary walk by a river-side, i feel my mind all collected within itself, and am naturally inclined to carry my view. I cannot forbear having a curiosity to be acquainted with the principles of moral good and evil, the nature and foundation of government, and the cause of those several passions and inclinations, which actuate and govern. I am uneasy to think i approve of one object, and disapprove of another; call one thing beautiful, and another book deformed; decide concerning truth and falshood, reason and folly, without knowing upon what principles I proceed. I am concerned for the condition of the learned world, which lies under such deplorable ignorance in all these particulars. I feel an ambition to arise in me of contributing to the instruction of mankind, and of acquiring a name by my inventions and discoveries.

These sentiments spring up naturally in my present disposition; and should i endeavour to banish them, by attaching myself to any other business or diversion, i feel I should be a loser in point of pleasure; and this is the origin of my philosophy. From An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding Section 10: Of Miracles 1 A miracle is a violation of the laws of nature; and as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws, the proof against a miracle, from the very nature of the fact,. Why is it more than probable, that all men must die; that lead cannot, of itself, remain suspended in the air; that fire consumes wood, and is extinguished by water; unless it be, that these events are found agreeable to the laws of nature, and. Nothing is esteemed a miracle, if it ever happen in the common course of nature. It is no miracle that a man, seemingly in good health, should die on a sudden: because such a kind of death, though more unusual than any other, has yet been frequently observed to happen. But it is a miracle, that a dead man should come to life; because that has never been observed in any age or country. There must, therefore, be a uniform sanskrit experience against every miraculous event, otherwise the event would not merit that appellation.

3 Here then I find myself absolutely and necessarily determined to live, and talk, and act like other people in the common affairs of life. But notwithstanding that my natural propensity, and the course of my animal spirits and passions reduce me to this indolent belief in the general maxims of the world, i still feel such remains of my former disposition, that i am ready to throw all. For those are my sentiments in that splenetic humour, which governs me at present. I may, nay i must yield to the current of nature, in submitting to my senses and understanding; and in this blind submission I shew most perfectly my sceptical disposition and principles. But does it follow, that I must strive against the current of nature, which leads me to indolence and pleasure; that I must seclude myself, in some measure, from the commerce and society of men, which is so agreeable; and that I must torture. Under what obligation do i lie of making such an abuse of time?

And to what end can it serve either for the service of mankind, or for my own private interest? No: If I must be a fool, as all those who reason or believe any thing certainly are, my follies shall at least be natural and agreeable. Where i strive against my inclination, i shall have a good reason for my resistance; and will no more be led a wandering into such dreary solitudes, and rough passages, as I have hitherto met with. 4 These are the sentiments of my spleen and indolence; and indeed I must confess, that philosophy has nothing to oppose to them, and expects a victory more from the returns of a serious good-humoured disposition, than from the force of reason and conviction. In all the incidents of life we ought still to preserve our scepticism. If we believe, that fire warms, or water refreshes, it is only because it costs us too much pains to think otherwise. Nay if we are philosophers, it ought only to be upon sceptical principles, and from an inclination, which we feel to the employing ourselves after that manner.

A, treatise of, human, nature by david Hume libraryThing

From what causes do i derive my existence, and to what condition shall I return? Whose favour shall I court, and whose anger must I dread? What beings surround me? And on paper whom have, i any influence, or who have any influence on me? I am confounded with summary all these questions, and begin to fancy myself in the most deplorable condition imaginable, invironed with the deepest darkness, and utterly deprived of the use of every member and faculty. 2 Most fortunately it happens, that since reason is incapable of dispelling these clouds, nature herself suffices to that purpose, and cures me of this philosophical melancholy and delirium, either by relaxing this bent of mind, or by some avocation, and lively impression. I dine, i play a game of backgammon, i converse, and am merry with my friends; and when after three or four hours amusement, i would return to these speculations, they appear so cold, and strained, and ridiculous, that I cannot find in my heart.

a treatise of human nature summary

The mind is a kind of theatre, where several perceptions successively make their appearance; pass, repass, glide away, and mingle in an infinite variety of postures and situations. There is properly no simplicity in it at one time, nor identity in different, whatever natural propension we may have to imagine that simplicity and identity. The comparison of the theatre must not mislead. They are the successive perceptions only, that constitute the mind; nor have we the most distant notion of the place where these scenes are represented, or of the materials of which it is composed. Book 1, section 7 1 But what have i here said, that reflections very refined and metaphysical have little or no influence upon us? This opinion I can scarce forbear retracting, and condemning from my present feeling and experience. The intense view of these manifold contradictions and imperfections in human reason has so wrought upon me, and heated my brain, that i am ready to reject all belief and reasoning, and can look upon no opinion even as more probable or likely than about another. Where am i, or what?

at any time without a perception, and never can observe any thing but the perception. When my perceptions are removed for any time, as by sound sleep, so long am i insensible of myself, and may truly be said not to exist. And were all my perceptions removed by death, and could I neither think, nor feel, nor see, nor love, nor hate, after the dissolution of my body, i should be entirely annihilated, nor do i conceive what is further requisite to make me a perfect. If any one, upon serious and unprejudiced reflection, thinks he has a different notion of himself, i must confess I can reason no longer with him. All I can allow him is, that he may be in the right as well as i, and that we are essentially different in this particular. He may, perhaps, perceive something simple and continued, which he calls himself ; though i am certain there is no such principle. 4 But setting aside some metaphysicians of this kind, i may venture to affirm of the rest of mankind, that they are nothing but a bundle or collection of different perceptions, which succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidity, and are in a perpetual flux. Our eyes cannot turn in their sockets without varying our perceptions. Our thought is still more variable than our sight; and all our other senses and faculties contribute to this change: nor is there any single power of the soul, which remains unalterably the same, perhaps for one moment.

It must be some one impression that gives rise to every real idea. But self or person is not any one impression, but that to which our several impressions and ideas are supposed to have a reference. If any impression gives rise to the idea of self, that impression must continue invariably the same, through the whole course of our lives; since self is supposed to exist after that manner. But there is no impression constant and invariable. Pain and pleasure, grief and joy, passions and sensations succeed each other, and never all exist at the same time. It cannot therefore be from any of these impressions, or from any other, that the idea of self is derived; and consequently there is no such idea. 3 But further, what must become of all our particular perceptions upon this hypothesis? All these are different, and distinguishable, and separable from each other, and may be separately considered, and may exist separately, and have no need of any thing to support their existence. After what manner therefore do they belong to self, and how are they connected with it?

Hume's 1739 a, treatise of, human, nature - book one - part

Hume, selections from Treatise and Enquiry. By david Hume, edited by, jack lynch, rutgers University — newark, from a reviews treatise of Human. Nature, book 1, section 6 1 There are some philosophers who imagine we are every moment intimately conscious of what we call our self ; that we feel its existence and its continuance in existence; and are certain, beyond the evidence of a demonstration, both. The strongest sensation, the most violent passion, say they, instead of distracting us from this view, only fix it the more intensely, and make us consider their influence on self either by their pain or pleasure. To attempt a further proof of this were to weaken its evidence; since no proof can be derived from any fact of which we are so intimately conscious; nor is there any thing of which we can be certain if we doubt of this. 2 Unluckily all these positive assertions are contrary to that very experience which is pleaded for them; nor have we any idea of self, after the manner it is here explained. For, from what impression could this idea be derived? This question it is impossible to answer without a manifest contradiction and absurdity; and yet 'tis a question which must necessarily be answered, if we would have the idea of self pass for clear and intelligible.

A treatise of human nature summary
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  5. Today i read the intro to a, treatise of, human Nature by david Hume. See also: Treatise on Law. Some add also honour. Ibn qayyim Al-Jawziyya also posited that human reason could discern between great sins and good deeds. citation needed The ninth Law is that every man acknowledge another for his equal by nature. From a treatise of Human Nature.

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  7. A, treatise of, human, nature. An Enquiry concerning, human. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Published: Sheba Blake publishing an imprint of, vearsa limited on Apr 26, 2014. A, treatise of, human, nature (work by hume) Written by The Editors of, encyclopædia britannica. Update or expand this article!

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