They returned every day, in good weather and bad, silently directing this pointed question at the grand house behind them. No one quite knew what to think. Political picketing was uncommon in those days, and by women unheard. Some passersby gawked, some hurled angry taunts, others were merely amused. The press was sharply divided. The president said nothing. Seemingly unperturbed, he sometimes smiled and tipped his hat at the pickets as his limousine drove through the White house gates.
Women's suffrage - wikipedia
Paul insisted that the snail-paced, state-by-state approach was futile; victory could come only by passage of the Anthony Amendment, and the weak-kneed Congress would never pass it without the presidents support. After the rupture, the indignant parent organization distanced itself from its unruly offspring as about much as possible. Headquarters for the washington group was the handsome cameron house, overlooking Lafayette Square, conveniently near the White house. There, on January 9, 1917, a fateful decision was made. Hours earlier President Wilson, recently elected for a second term, had walked out on a visiting suffrage delegation after angrily repeating his refusal to endorse their cause. This most brusque dismissal yet was the last straw. After years of polite appeals, it was time for direct action. The next morning, 12 women carrying banners on long poles left Cameron house and took up positions outside the White house gates. In their movements traditional colors-purple, white and gold-their banners demanded:. President, how long must women wait for liberty?
Tall, robust and flame-haired, at 38 the Brooklyn-born Burns was pauls temperamental opposite, yet they complemented each other perfectly: paul directing strategy from the background, while burns was leading public demonstrations. In March 1913, woodrow Wilson began his first term as president. Paul considered his support essential to the cause-but womens suffrage, it turned out, was not on this presidents agenda. Repeated appeals for his support of the Anthony Amendment were just as repeatedly evaded, wilson claiming that a president should not try to influence congress, but should follow the dictates of his party (the democratic Party, then dominated by arch-conservative southerners). Women scoffed at this, since wilson was known as an autocratic president, constantly exerting influence on Congress even in paper trivial matters. But the more they pressed him, the more he resisted, and the standoff lasted throughout his first term in office. Meanwhile, alice pauls Washington-based group split from nawsa in a fundamental dispute over strategy. Nawsas conservative leadership, committed to patient, state-by-state campaigning, disdained action on the federal level and deplored pauls tactics as far too aggressive.
All her energy was concentrated on her one obsessive passion: womens political rights. Even her closest associates never claimed to know her well, yet her magnetism inspired in them idolizing loyalty. Campaign strategy was her forte, and she planned with such military precision that some likened her to a general. Paul arrived in Washington in December essay 1912 to take over the local office of the national American Woman Suffrage Association (nawsa headquartered in New York. Committed to a state-by-state approach, nawsa considered the nations capital so unimportant that the washington offices budget for 1912 was. Paul was expected to raise her own operating funds. With her came her chief assistant Lucy burns.
Those six made a bit of history that day. All were members of the national Womans Party (NWP). They were the first of a long procession of women jailed on trumped-up charges solely for demonstrating for their right to vote. Nwp members came from all across the country and all levels of society, with little in common except dedication to obtaining that right. This was the exclusive goal of the nwp, whose driving force was a determined young woman named Alice paul. At 32, paul was widely admired as one of the most daring and imaginative leaders the womens movement had ever seen — and just as widely denounced as a dangerous radical. The daughter of quakers in moorestown,. J., she was petite, frail and soft-spoken — hardly a radical image. She never married, nor displayed romantic interest in any man or woman.
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 - wikipedia
Some saw no point in women voting; with no understanding of politics, they would only vote as their menfolk told them. Others argued that after getting the vote, women would take over the government. With such opposition, the Anthony Amendment seemed doomed to lie dormant forever. The six accused of obstructing traffic that summer day in 1917 denied all charges, insisting that the crowd outside the White house had gathered only because police had announced that arrests would be made. Moreover, picketing had gone on since january without obstructing anything, and with no interference.
It was, after all, entirely legal. Why the sudden crackdown now? But the judge declared the ladies outside the White house were the proximate cause of the curious crowd, and must take the consequences. Besides, he added, there there are certainpeoplewho believe you ladies ought not have the vote. Unimpressed by the prisoners spirited defense, the judge found them guilty as charged, and imposed a 25 fine or three days imprisonment on each. Refusing to pay, which they saw as admitting guilt, they were led off unrepentant to the washington jail.
Common Law suits - jury Trial (1791) (see explanation amendment viii, excess bail or Fines, Cruel and Unusual Punishment (1791) (see explanation amendment ix, non-Enumerated Rights (1791) (see explanation amendment x, rights Reserved to States or people (1791) (see explanation amendment xi, suits Against. Election of President and Vice-President (1804) (see explanation amendment xiii abolition of Slavery (1865) (see explanation ) Amendment xiv privileges and Immunities, due process, Equal Protection, Apportionment of Representatives, civil War Disqualification and Debt (1868) (see explanation ) Amendment xv rights Not to be denied. (1961) (see explanation ) Amendment xxiv poll Tax (1964) (see explanation ) Amendment xxv presidential Succession (1967) (see explanation ) Amendment xxvi right to vote at Age 18 (1971) (see explanation ) Amendment xxvii compensation of Members of Congress (1992) (see explanation ). Six well-bred women stood before a judge in the washington,. C., police court on June 27, 1917.
Not thieves, drunks or prostitutes like the usual defendants there, they included a university student, an author of nursing books, a prominent campaign organizer and two former schoolteachers. All were educated, accomplished and unacquainted with criminal activity. But today they stood accused in a court of law. Their alleged offense: obstructing traffic. What they had actually done was to stand quietly outside the White house carrying banners urging President woodrow Wilson to support their decades-long struggle to add one sentence to the constitution: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied. Anthony Amendment was introduced in Congress in 1878. There it lay, regarded with fear and loathing, for almost 40 years.
Constitution constitution us law lii / Legal
Individuals who have served over two years of someone elses term may not be elected more than once. 23rd Amendment : Reserves the right of citizens residing in the district of Columbia to vote for their own Electors for presidential elections. 24th Amendment : citizens cannot be denied the suffrage rights for not paying a poll tax or any other taxes. 25th Amendment : establishes the procedures for a successor of a president. 26th Amendment : Reserves the right for citizens 18 and older to vote. 27th Amendment : Denies any laws that vary the salaries of Congress members until the beginning of the next terms of office for Representatives. Constitution constitution us law lii / Legal Information Institute. Jump to navigation, amendment i, religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, petition (1791) (see explanation writing amendment. Right to bear Arms (1791) (see explanation amendment iii, quartering of Troops (1791) (see explanation amendment iv, search and seizure (1791) (see explanation amendment v, grand Jury, double jeopardy, self-Incrimination, due process (1791) (see explanation amendment vi, criminal Prosecutions - jury Trial, right to confront.
16th Amendment : Reserves the. Government the right to tax income. 17th Amendment : Establishes write popular voting as the process under which senators are elected. 18th Amendment : Denies the sale and consumption of alcohol. 19th Amendment : Reserves womens suffrage rights. 20th Amendment : also known as the lame duck amendment, establishes date of term starts for Congress (January 3) the President (January 20). 21st Amendment : Details the repeal of the eighteenth Amendment. State laws over alcohol are to remain. 22nd Amendment : Limit the terms that an individual can be elected as president (at most two terms).
people and the States. 11th Amendment : State sovereign immunity. States are protected from suits by citizens living in another state or foreigners that do not reside within the state borders. 7, 1795 12th Amendment : Modifies and clarifies the procedure for electing vice-presidents and presidents. 13th Amendment : Except as punishment for criminal offense, forbids forced-slavery and involuntary servitude. 14th Amendment : Details Equal Protection Clause, due process Clause, citizenship Clause, and clauses dealing with the confederacy and its officials. 15th Amendment : Reserves citizens the suffrage rights regardless of their race, color, or previous slave status.
3rd Amendment : dates Citizens cannot be forced to quarter soldiers during times of peace. 4th Amendment : Citizens cannot be forced to subject themselves to seizure and search without a search warrant and probable cause. 5th Amendment : Prohibits abuse of governmental authority in legal procedures. Establishes rules for indictment by eminent domain and grand jury. Guarantees the due process rights. Protects citizens from self-incrimination and double jeopardy. 6th Amendment : guarantees fair and speedy jury trial and the rights to know the accusation, the accuser, and to find counsel and witnesses. 7th Amendment : Reserves individuals rights to jury trial depending on the civil case, and cases already examined by not be re-opened by another court. 8th Amendment : Forbids exorbitant bails and fines and punishment that is unusual or cruel.
List of 27 Amendments to the
There are currently 27 ratified amendments (of which the first ten are known as the bill of Rights) to the constitution since its enactment. The fifth article of the. Constitution details the procedure for amending. For an amendment to become official, it must pass a majority of two-thirds from both the house and the senate of the United States Congress. Alternatively, an amendment could be proposed through the state legislatures with a majority of two-thirds (a process called constitutional convention). It is then officially a component of the constitution when three-fourths of States ratify. 1st Amendment : guarantees the right to the freedoms of speech, press, and religion. Protects the right to petition the government. 2nd Amendment : guarantees the peoples right to own and bear arms roles for their defense.