The desire came upon me to try if I might imitate, after some fashion, some one among those who honourably busied themselves with the art, men whose deaths I hear regretted every day jannon mentions some eminent printers of the previous century. And inasmuch as I could not accomplish this design for lack of types which I needed. Some typefounders would not, and others could not furnish me with what I lacked so i resolved, about six years ago, to turn my hand in good earnest to the making of punches, matrices and moulds for all sorts of characters, for the accommodation both. 23 Jannon's career took place during a politically tense period. Jannon was a protestant in mostly catholic France. After apparently working with the Estienne family in Paris he set up an independent career as printer in Sedan in what is now north-eastern France, becoming printer for the Protestant Academy.
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A proper optical harmony of the angle of slope is characteristic for all Granjons Italics; it allowed the compositor to use whole lines of capitals without causing too much giddiness." 60 61 Granjon also cut many swash capitals, which peron Vervliet describes as "deliciously daring" and. 60 62 jean Jannon edit main article: jean Jannon Jannon's two largest sizes of type from an Imprimerie nationale specimen. The 'j' is a later addition. 23 The matrices of Jannon's Imprimerie nationale type. In 1621, sixty years after Garamond's death, marketing the French printer jean Jannon released a specimen of typefaces that had some characteristics similar to the garamond designs. 1 63 The French royal Printing Office (Imprimerie royale) appears to have bought matrices from him in 1641 in three large sizes, roman and italic at roughly 18, 24 and 36 point sizes. (The contract is actually made for one 'nicholas Jannon which historians have concluded to be a mistake. 64 ) Despite the purchase, it is not clear that the office ever much used Jannon's type: historian James Mosley has reported being unable to find books printed by the Imprimerie that use more than two sizes of italic, although "it is not easy. 16 65 His type would later be misattributed to garamond. 66 Jannon wrote in his specimen that: seeing that for some time many persons have had to do with the art of printing who have greatly lowered.
F Plantin's collection of original Garamond punches and matrices survives at the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp, together with many other typefaces collected by Plantin from other typefounders of the period. 56 The collection has been used extensively for research, for example by historians Harry carter and Hendrik vervliet. Carter's son Matthew would later describe his research as helping to demonstrate "that the finest collection of printing types made in typography's golden age was in perfect condition (some muddle aside) along with Plantin's accounts and inventories which names the cutters of his types.". 59 Robert Granjon edit main article: Robert Granjon Many modern revival fonts based on French renaissance printing are influenced by the work of Robert Granjon (c. 1513-90 particularly in italic. An engraver with a long and wide-ranging career, Granjons work seems to have ranged much more widely than Garamonds focus on roman and Greek type, cutting type in italic, civilité (a cursive blackletter and for the vatican type in exotic alphabets including Arabic, Armenian and. His career also took in stops in the netherlands, Switzerland, germany and finally for the last twelve years of his life rome, where he ended his career in the service of the vatican. Vervliet comments that Granjon "laid the foundation for our image of the way an Italic should look." Although he was not quite the first designer to use the idea of italics having capitals sloped to complement the roman, he "solved successfully the problem.
Earlier fonts that may have been cut by garamond have been suggested but the attribution is less certain. After Garamond's death edit garamond died in 1561 and his punches and matrices were sold off by his widow. Purchasers included the le bé type foundry in Paris run by the family of guillaume le bé and master printer Christophe Plantin of Antwerp who was in Paris at the time; the Frankfurt foundry often referred to by historians as Egenolff-Berner also came to acquire. 51 52 These sales spread Garamond's work and reputation across Europe, but the division of materials caused problems for printers: le bé's son is known to have written to Plantin's successor Moretus offering to trade matrices so they could both have complementary type. 23 Egelhoff-Berner showcased various types of Garamond's and other French engravers in a specimen in 1592, which would later be a source for historians. 3 A trademark associated with the garalde style in modern times is the four-terminal 'w although sixteenth-century French typefaces generally do not include the character as it is not normal in French. It appears in a 1555 book from printer Andreas Wechel, of German origins.
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It has been suggested that the first Roman types designed by Claude garamond were a set created for Robert Estienne and first used by him around 1530-3, that were the first typefaces used in Paris to copy the manutius model. 21 However, vervliet suggests that these 'estienne typefaces' were not designed by garamond and that his career began somewhat later. Vervliet suggests that the creator of this set of typefaces to a unified design may have been a 'master Constantin recorded in the le bé memorandum as a master type designer of the period before garamond but about whom nothing is otherwise known and. 41 c If so, his disappearance from history (perhaps due to an early death, since all his presumed work appeared in just four years from 1530 to 1533) and the execution of Augereau on a charge of heresy in 1534 may have allowed Garamond's essay reputation. 39 Italics edit garamond may have been less interested in italics, which at the time were conceived separately to roman types rather than designed alongside them as complementary matches. 42 While his italics have been considered less impressive than his roman typefaces, he (alongside, according to vervliet, Granjon in particular) was one of the early printers to establish the modern tradition that the italic capitals should slope as the lower case does, rather than.
D 1 Estienne's 1550 edition of the new Testament was typeset with Garamond's grecs du roi. 43 Few modern Garamond releases have attempted to replicate this fluid style that attempts to approach handwriting. Greek edit garamond's original punches for the Grecs du roi type, owned by the French government. Garamond designed type for the Greek alphabet from the beginning of his attested career, but his most celebrated work in Greek, the Grecs du roi fonts, commissioned for the French government in 1540, 44 are very different to his Latin designs: they attempt to simulate. This style is impractical for modern setting of body text, since it requires careful manual choice of characters for every word. 49 e several 'garamond' releases such as Adobe's contain Greek designs that are either a compromise between Garamond's upright Latin designs and his slanted Greek ones or primarily inspired by his Latin designs. The grecs du roi type, the contract for which survives, is the type with which Garamond enters the historical record, although it is clearly not the work of a beginner.
Confusion about which engravers created which typefaces is natural since many were active over this time, creating typefaces not just in the latin alphabet in roman and italic, but also in Greek and Hebrew for scholarly use. These included Garamond himself, Granjon, guillaume le bé, particularly respected for his Hebrew fonts, 26 27 pierre hautin, Antoine augereau (who may have been Garamond's mentor Estienne's stepfather Simon de colines and others. 28 This period saw the creation of a pool of high-quality punches and matrices that would supply the French and European printing industry, to a large extent, for the next two centuries. 21 28 Very little is known about Garamond's life or work before 1540, although he wrote in a preface of having cut punches for type since childhood. 29 he worked for a variety of employers on commission, creating punches and selling matrices to publishers and the government.
30 Garamond's typefaces were popular abroad, and replaced Griffo's original roman type at the Aldine Press in Venice. 22 31 he also worked as a publisher and bookseller. By 1549, a document from theologian jean de gagny specified that the goldsmith Charles Chiffin, who had cut an italic for his private printing press, should receive payment at the rate of "the best punchcutter in this city after master Claude garamont clearly showing that. 23 Vervliet concludes that Garamond created thirty-four typefaces for which an attribution can be confidently made (17 roman, 7 italic, 8 Greek, 2 Hebrew) and another three for which the attribution is problematic (one each of roman, Greek and Hebrew). 28 If Garamond ever distributed specimens of his typefaces as later punchcutters and typefounders did, they apparently do not survive. While some records such as Christophe Plantin 's exist of what exact types were cut by garamond himself, many details of his career remain uncertain: early estimates placed Garamonds date of birth 1480, but modern opinion proposes much later estimates. 16 A document called the le bé memorandum (based on the memories of guillaume le bé, but collated by one of his sons around 1643) suggests that Garamond finished his apprenticeship around 1510. 34 35 This is considered unlikely by modern historians since his mother was still alive when he died in 1561 and little is known of him before around 1540.
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17 16 A book printed by robert Estienne in 1550. His graceful and delicate typefaces, based on the work of Aldus Manutius thirty-five years earlier, redefined practices in French printing; never before had a complete roman typeface been made to such a large size, and the use of multiple sizes cut in the same style. His typefaces were either cut by or defined the style in which Garamond worked. French typefounders of the 16th century assiduously examined Manutius's work (and, it is thought, de aetna in particular) as a source of inspiration. 21 22 This examination extended to in some cases copying his first 'm' shown in de aetna which had no serif pointing out of the letter at top the right, a design considered very eccentric. (It has been suggested to be the result of defective casting, especially since manutius' later fonts do not show.) The Griffo font was only cut in a single size, so French punchcutters made modified versions of the design to suit different sizes, with. The period from 1520 to around 1560, encompassing Garamond's career, was an extremely busy period for typeface creation. Many fonts were cut, some such as Robert Estiennes for a single printers exclusive use, others sold or traded between them.
11 A page spread from the book de aetna, printed by Aldus Manutius in 1495. It would become influential in French printing from the 1530s. Garamond cut type in the 'roman or upright style, in italic, and Greek. In the period of Garamond's home early life roman type had been displacing the blackletter or Gothic type which was used in some (although not all) early French printing. (Though his name was generally written as 'garamont' in his lifetime, the spelling 'garamond' became the most commonly used form after his death. 15 16 Professor Hendrik vervliet, the leading contemporary expert on French Renaissance printing, uses Garamont consistently.) The roman designs of Garamond which are his most imitated were based on a font cut around 1495 for the venetian printer Aldus Manutius by engraver Francesco Griffo. 17 18 This was first used in the book de aetna, a short work by poet and cleric pietro bembo which was Manutius' first printing in the latin alphabet after a long series of publications of classics of Greek literature that won him an international. Historian beatrice warde has assessed de aetna as something of a pilot project, a small book printed to a higher standard than Manutius' norm. Among other details, this font popularised the idea that in printing the cross-stroke of the 'e' should be level instead of slanting upwards to the right like handwriting, something imitated in almost all type designs since.
typefaces in sixteenth-century France and. Therefore, a "Garamond" revival font in modern use can in practice often be understood to mean one based on the general appearance of early modern French printing, not necessarily specifically garamond's work. 4 5 The term " Garalde " is used by the publishing association atypI to generally refer to designs on the Aldus-French renaissance model. 6 In particular, many 'garamond' revivals of the early twentieth century are actually based on the work of a later punch-cutter, jean Jannon, whose noticeably different work was for some years misattributed to garamond. Modern Garamond revivals also often add a matching bold and 'lining' numbers at the height of capital letters, neither of which were used in Garamond's time. 7 b The most common digital font named Garamond is Monotype garamond. Developed in the early 1920s and bundled with many microsoft products, it is a revival of Jannon's work. Contents History edit garamont's life and career edit a great Primer type (c. 18 pt) by garamond, cast from surviving matrices in the Plantin Moretus Museum.
Some distinctive characteristics in Garamond's letterforms are an 'e' with a small eye and the bowl of the 'a' which has a sharp hook upwards at top left. 1, other general features are limited but clear stroke contrast and capital letters on the model. The 'm' is slightly splayed with outward-facing serifs at the top (sometimes only on the left) and the leg of the 'r' extends friend outwards from the letter. The x-height (height of lower-case letters) is low, especially at larger sizes, making the capitals large relative to the lower case, while the top serifs on the ascenders of letters like 'd' have a downward slope and ride above the cap height. 1, the axis of letters like the o is diagonal and the bottom right of the italic 'h' bends inwards. 2, following an eclipse in popularity in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, many modern revival faces in the garamond style have been developed. It is common to pair these with italics based on those created by his contemporary. Robert Granjon, who was well known for his proficiency in this genre.
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For other uses, see, garamond (disambiguation). Garamond is a group of many old-style serif typefaces, named for sixteenth-century, parisian engraver. Claude garamond (generally spelled as Garamont in his lifetime). Garamond-style typefaces are popular and often used, particularly for printing body text and books. Garamond worked as an engraver of punches, the masters used to stamp matrices, dates the moulds used to cast metal type. A, his designs followed the model of an influential design cut for Venetian printer. Aldus Manutius by his punchcutter, francesco Griffo in 1495, and helped to establish what is now called the old-style serif letter design, letters with a relatively organic structure resembling handwriting with a pen, but with a slightly more structured and upright design.