Reading Research quarterly 16, 569582. (2002) roots and research. Available on the key stage 3 website /keystage3/publications. (2002) What does research tell us about how to develop comprehension? Lewis (eds) raising standards in literacy. (1998) Comprehension: a paradigm for cognition.
Summary completion: ielts reading tutorial
(1984) Metacognitive skills and reading. Pearson (ed) Handbook of reading research. (1989) Why strategy instruction is so difficult and what we need to do about. Pressley (eds) investment Cognitive strategy research: from basic research to educational applications,. (1987) Effects of explaining the reasoning associated with using reading strategies. Reading Research quarterly 22, 347368. (1995) teaching children to learn. (1999) Best practices in literacy instruction. (1993) Frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. (1981) Monitoring and resolving comprehension obstacles: an investigation of spontaneous text lookbacks among upper grade good and poor comprehenders.
Some will then go on to select from their resume range of strategies that which might help overcome their problem. In shared and guided reading sessions we can model for pupils how fluent readers monitor their understanding and use strategies to clarify their own understanding. These may range from semantic strategies to work out a troublesome word to sophisticated reflections on whether the meaning is deliberately obscure (as in a mystery) or perhaps challenging the author/text because the reader thinks they are incorrect. Such teacher modelling is an important part of the learning opportunities within reading sessions. The work of Gerry duffy and laura roehler (Duffy. 1987; Duffy and roehler 1989) concerning teacher demonstration and modelling is the one most often referred. 1.4 References, baker,.
Siegler (2000) sees the pupil as moving from acquiring salon strategies to being able to reflect on their usefulness and compare them with others. This implies a level of conscious decision-making by the pupil. This self-awareness and ability to reflect is important in learning. Gardner (1993) lists metacognitive intelligence as one of the types of learning, but it is one that, until recently, was rarely actively encouraged in many classrooms. Vygotsky (1962) suggested that diary there are two stages in the development of knowledge: firstly there is automatic unconscious acquisition (we learn things or do things but do not know that we know these things and secondly there is a gradual increase in active conscious control. The second of these is a metacognitive level of understanding. Over the last decade we have become increasingly aware of the importance of metacognition in learning to read (baker and Brown 1984). One of the characteristics distinguishing younger readers from older readers, and poorer readers from fluent readers, is that younger and poorer readers often do not recognise when they have not understood a text (Garner and reis 1981 that is, there is evidence that they are. Other readers show a greater awareness of their own level of understanding for they will stop when a text does not make sense to them.
Access to a range of strategies is important for development but also to accommodate pupils different learning styles. Research into brain function has shown that different areas of the brain are used when different kinds of thinking and learning are required. Some pupils show a marked preference for strategies that require a particular type of learning to be used. Using a range of strategies ensures that pupils can use not only those strategies that they prefer but also those that require other types of learning to be stimulated. Howard Gardner (1993) has identified seven different aspects of learning. These are linguistic or verbal; visual/spatial; logical/mathematical; physical/kinaesthetic; musical; interpersonal; metacognitive. Robert Fisher gives a useful summary of strategies to enhance these different types of learning in his book teaching children to learn (1995). 1.3 The importance of metacognitive awareness in reading comprehension.
National reading Panel nichd - eunice kennedy Shriver
Both Pressley and analyst the nrpr research overview on comprehension emphasise the crucial role of the teacher in explicitly encouraging the use of comprehension strategies. The nrpr cites evidence to show that the pupils of teachers who consciously included reading comprehension strategies within their reading programmes made better progress in their reading. It seems that comprehension improves when teachers provide explicit instruction in comprehension strategies and when teachers design and implement activities that support understanding (Tharp 1992). Explicitly planning to include such strategies within shared and guided reading would therefore seem to be an essential part of a successful reading programme. 1.2 The importance of having a range of learning strategies. It seems from the research"d above that there is a growing consensus about the kinds of experiences pupils need in order to develop their reading comprehension, in the teaching model and in the range of strategies that might be helpful. The nrpr drew attention to the importance of pupils having a range of reading comprehension strategies.
Work in cognitive psychology has shown that pupils need to have access to a range of strategies to enable development to take place. Siegler (2000) in a recent overview into learning and development makes the point that learners need a range of production strategies (ways of doing things) and that having a wide range of production strategies is important for development to take place. Learners, he claims, add to their repertoire of strategies by observation (watching someone do it discovery/invention (finding out for themselves direct instruction (explain, show, tell, practise, feed back analogy (if this works for x it might also work for Y). They then go on to refine these strategies by automation (practising it until it becomes habitual reflection (doing something and then thinking about it examination (i.e. Social examination, comparing and contrasting with others).
Some of it is particular to key stages 1 and 2, but much of it is directly relevant to key stage. Pressleys list of strategies places considerable emphasis on various forms of vocabulary work. The importance of vocabulary development is also stressed in the us governments National reading Panel Report (nrp 2000 which has undertaken a review of the research evidence regarding effective teaching of reading. In looking at reading comprehension it examined 230 research studies and noted three main themes in the research on the development of reading comprehension skills. First, reading comprehension is a complex cognitive process that cannot be understood without a clear description of the role that vocabulary development and vocabulary instruction play in the understanding of what has been read.
Second, comprehension is an active process that requires an intentional and thoughtful interaction between the reader and the text. Third, the preparation of teachers to better equip students to develop and apply reading comprehension strategies to enhance understanding is intimately linked to students achievement in this area. Extract from the us governments National reading Panel Report 2000, national reading Panel. The second element (intentional and thoughtful engagement between the reader and the text) is also stressed in Pressleys list which puts emphasis on a number of ways in which the students comprehension might be enhanced through making connections and considering responses. Such activities are characterised as being cognitive and social, and are also active (for example rehearsing prior knowledge, generating mental images, activating knowledge about text structure) and interactive (for example asking why questions, engaging in reciprocal teaching, working with the teacher and peers). This emphasis on collaborative and/or interactive approaches to reading comprehension has been a characteristic of research in the field over the past 10 years and draws on theoretical perspectives from the cognitive sciences (for example from schema theory and story grammar) and socio-cultural perspectives (for. The model of teaching advocated by Pressley and the nrpr is therefore a balance of direct instruction along with teacher modelling and guided practice, leading to independent practice and autonomy. This model is one which is reflected in KS3 training.
Summarizing Classroom Strategies reading Rockets
Over the last few years there has been a renewed research interest (Pressley 2000, kintsch 1998) into what is called, in the usa, reading comprehension. This renewed research interest is not, however, a return to the concept of comprehension current in the period from 1945 to 1980. At that time the research was characterised by attempts to identify the sub-skills of comprehension, then to establish some sort of hierarchy and then to teach these identified skills to pupils in progressive order. (Such an approach is still to be found in some reading comprehension exercises.) Rather, the renewed research focus is based on seeing the child as actively engaging with the text to create meaning. It emphasises the acquisition of strategies whilst engaged in authentic reading, rather than being taught as a separate suite of skills; it has broadened the range of strategies to include both cognitive and interpretive strategies and it uses a problem-solving approach. It also recognises the impact of reader differences and the wider socio- cultural context within which any act of reading takes place. Pressley (2000) has undertaken a major research review in this field and he offers a list paper of approaches to reading development, and particularly comprehension development, which represent an up-to-date synthesis of all the major strands of research-derived strategies for improving reading.
Hebert, "Putting Objects in Perspective cvpr 2006 pdf more details sai,. Ramanan, wlkes, "Discriminative models dna for Multi-Class Object layout iccv 2011 pdf code, due nov 19:. Duygulu, rnard, freitas, rsyth, "Object recognition as machine translation: learning a lexicon for a fixed image vocabulary eccv 2002 pdf,. Hockenmaier, rsyth, "Every picture tells a story: Generating Sentences for Images eccv 2010 pdf. Due nov 26:. Fei-fei, "What does classifying more than 10,000 image categories tell us? eccv 2010 pdf o,. Koller, "Discriminative learning of Relaxed hierarchy for Large-scale visual Recognition iccv 2011 pdf). 1.1 Recent research into reading comprehension (or making meaning from texts).
like about the paper. What would you do differently if you were the authors; questions you have about the paper (things that you do not understand and like to be explained). If you never review papers before (even if you do i recommend having a look at "The task of the referee" by Alan jay smith on how to be a good reviewer. The reviews are due by 10:00am on the specified due date. Please prepare a pdf file containing your name, student id, email address, and your reviews (for all the papers due on that day). Then submit the pdf file to the corresponding dropbox folder in D2L. For example, reviews due on Oct 29 should be submitted to the folder "reading assignment (Oct 29 in D2L. Due oct 29:. Ramanan, "Articulated Pose Estimation using Flexible mixtures of Parts cvpr 2011 pdf more details,. Rozenfeld, "Learning realistic human actions from movies cvpr 2008 pdf more details, due nov 5:.
Order of magnitude estimates, the nearest power of 10, are useful to see if more detailed calculations are needed or test if an answer makes sense. There are two common sorts of coordinate systems: Cartesian (rectangular) (x vs y) and plane polar (distance and angle). A quick review of trigonemtry for right triangles: sine opposite over hypotenuse; cosine adjacent over hypenuse; tangent opposte over adjacent; and a2. Finally there is a step-by-step guide to solving problems. Last modified: Mon pdf Aug 4 15:52. Comp 4060/7950: reading Assignments (tentative and subject to change). Reading and reviewing papers is a critical part of being a researcher. Starting from week 9, i will assign papers to read before each class. Students are required to write a review for each assigned paper.
Sentence combining Classroom Strategies reading Rockets
Chapter 1 Example reading Summary, the for laws of physics have basic quantities which must be clearly defined. The basic quantities are length (L mass (m and time (T). Common system. Length standard is the meter, mass is the kilogram, and time is the second. Dimensional analysis treats dimensions as algebraic quantities to test the correctness of equations. Measurements have uncertainty and the number of significant figures gives the accuracy of the measurement. When multiplying, dividing, adding or subtracting the least accurate number (lowest number of significant figures) determines the number of significant figures in the answer. To convert from one unit system to another use the conversion factors at the front of the book and multiply by equivalent quantities arranging for algebraic cancelation to get the units you want.