Al Protocol, which was renegotiated in 1990, calls for the phaseout of certain chlorocarbons and fluorocarbons by the year 2000 and provides aid to developing countries in making this transition. Smog, mixture of solid and liquid fog and smoke particles formed when humidity is high and the air so calm that smoke and fumes accumulate near their source. Smog reduces natural visibility and often irritates the eyes and respiratory tract. In dense urban areas, the death rate usually goes up considerably during prolonged periods of smog, particularly when a process of heat inversion creates a smog-trapping ceiling over a city. Smog occurs most often in and near coastal cities and is an especially severe problem in Los Angeles and tokyo. Smog prevention requires control of smoke from furnaces; reduction of fumes from metal-working and other industrial plants; and control of noxious emissions from automobiles, trucks, and incinerators. Internal-combustion engines are regarded as the largest contributors to the smog problem, emitting large amounts of contaminants, including unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. The number of undesirable components in smog, however, is considerable, and the proportions highly variable.
Essay on, pollution in, english
Nevertheless, research reports released in the. In the 1980s indicate that the greenhouse effect is definitely under way and that the nations of the world should be taking immediate steps to deal with. Government Action, in the. S., the Clean Air Act of 1967 as amended in 1970, 1977, and 1990 hotel is the legal basis for air-pollution control throughout the. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has primary responsibility for carrying out the requirements of the act, which specifies that air-quality standards be established for hazardous substances. These standards are in the form of concentration levels that are believed to be low enough to protect public health. Source emission standards are also specified to limit the discharge of pollutants into the air so that air-quality standards will be achieved. The act was also designed to prevent significant deterioration of air quality in areas where the air is currently cleaner than the standards require. The amendments of 1990 identified ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, acid rain, and air toxins as major air pollution problems. On the international scene, 49 countries agreed in March 1985 on a united Nations convention to protect the ozone layer.
These pollutants may then be transported over large distances and produce adverse effects in areas far from the site of the original emission. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from the central and eastern. Are causing acid rain in New York State, new England, and eastern Canada. The pH level, or relative acidity, of many freshwater lakes in that region has been altered so dramatically by this rain that entire fish populations have been destroyed. Similar effects have been observed in Europe. Sulfur dioxide emissions and the subsequent formation of sulfuric acid can also be responsible for the attack on limestone and marble at large distances from the source. The worldwide increase in the burning of coal and oil since the late 1940s has led to ever diary increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide. The resulting greenhouse effect, which allows solar energy to enter the atmosphere but reduces the reemission of infrared radiation from the earth, could conceivably lead to a warming trend that might affect the global climate and lead to a partial melting of the polar ice. Possibly an increase in cloud cover or absorption of excess carbon dioxide by the oceans would check the greenhouse effect before it reached the stage of polar melting.
Potential pollutants may exist in the materials entering a chemical or combustion process (such as lead in gasoline or they may be produced as a result of the process itself. Carbon monoxide, for example, is a typical product of internal-combustion engines. Methods for controlling air pollution include removing book the hazardous material before it is used, removing the pollutant after it is formed, or altering the process so that the pollutant is not formed or occurs only at very low levels. Automobile pollutants can be controlled by burning the gasoline as completely as possible, by recirculating fumes from fuel tank, carburetor, and crankcase, and by changing the engine exhaust to harmless substances in catalytic converters. Industrially emitted particulates may be trapped in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, and filters. Pollutant gases can be collected in liquids or on solids, or incinerated into harmless substances. The tall smokestacks used by industries and utilities do not remove pollutants but simply boost them higher into the atmosphere, thereby reducing their concentration at the site.
The effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations are not well defined; however, those most at risk are the very young, the elderly, smokers, workers whose jobs expose them to toxic materials, and persons with heart or lung disease. Other adverse effects of air pollution are potential injury to livestock and crops. Often, the first noticeable effects of pollution are aesthetic and may not necessarily be dangerous. These include visibility reduction due to tiny particles suspended in air, or bad odors, such as the rotten egg smell produced by hydrogen sulfide emanating from pulp and paper mills. Sources and Control, the combustion of coal, oil, and gasoline accounts for much of the airborne pollutants. More than 80 percent of the sulfur dioxide, 50 percent of the nitrogen oxides, and 30 to 40 percent of the particulate matter emitted to the atmosphere in the. Are produced by fossil-fuel-fired electric power plants, industrial boilers, and residential furnaces. Eighty percent of the carbon monoxide and 40 percent of the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons come from burning gasoline and diesel fuels in cars and trucks. Other major pollution sources include iron and steel mills; zinc, lead, and copper smelters; municipal incinerators; petroleum refineries; cement plants; and nitric and sulfuric acid plants.
Pollution, essay, topics, titles examples
The level is usually given in terms of atmospheric concentrations (micrograms of pollutants per cubic meter of air) or, for gases, in terms of parts per million, that is, number of pollutant molecules per million air molecules. Many come from directly identifiable sources; sulfur dioxide, for example, comes from electric power plants burning coal or oil. Others are formed through the action of sunlight on previously emitted reactive materials (called precursors). For example, ozone, a dangerous pollutant in smog, is produced by the interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight. Ozone has also caused serious crop damage. On the other hand, the discovery in the 1980s that air pollutants such as fluorocarbons are causing a loss of ozone from the earths protective ozone layer has caused the phasing out of these materials. Pollutant diary concentrates are reduced by atmospheric mixing, which depends on such weather conditions as temperature, wind speed, and the movement of high and low pressure systems and their interaction with the local topography, for example, mountains and valleys.
Normally, temperature decreases with altitude. But when a colder layer of air settles under a warm layer, producing a temperature or thermal inversion, atmospheric mixing is retarded and pollutants may accumulate near the ground. Inversions can become sustained under a stationary high-pressure system coupled with low wind speeds. Periods of only three days of poor atmospheric mixing can lead to high concentrations of hazardous bay materials in high-pollution areas and, under severe conditions, can result in injury and even death. An inversion over Donora, pennsylvania, in 1948 caused respiratory illness in over 6000 persons and led to the death. Severe pollution in London took 3500 to 4000 lives in 1952 and another 700 in 1962. Release of methyl isocyanate into the air during a temperature inversion caused the disaster at Bhopal, India, in December 1984, with at least 3300 deaths and more than 20,000 illnesses.
1-01 Tallgrass Prairies - flint Hills (National Park service) Discusses the preservation and management of the tallgrass Prairie national Preserve in the Flint Hills region of Kansas. 4-01 Trade Agreements Affecting the Environment (World Trade Organization) Provides the official wto web site. 12-99 Periodicals Global Environment - an overview (Kids' Almanac) Provides a short statement on the status of the environment on each continent. Projects Pollution Control (Stop Oregon Litter and Vandalism) Provides volunteer programs to clean up Oregon. Free title page bibliography page proofreading revision 10 days -.95/page7 days -.95/page4 days -.95/page48 hours -.95/page24 hours -.95/page12 hours -.95/page6 hours -.95/page 1 page - 250 words2 pages - 500 words3 pages - 750 words words words words. Air Polution Essay, research Paper, air Pollution, contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors.
Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. A byproduct of the radioactive decay of uranium minerals in certain kinds of rock, radon seeps into the basements of homes built on these rocks. According to recent estimates by the. Government, 20 percent of the homes in the. Harbor radon concentrations that are high enough to pose a risk of lung cancer. Each year industrially developed countries generate billions of tons of pollutants. The most prevalent and widely dispersed air pollutants are described in the accompanying table.
Essay, pollution of the environment in modern cities sample Writing
The bush Administration energy plan ignores high-tech, energy-efficient solutions in favor of increased oil, gas, coal, and nuclear production, while his budget proposal slashes funding for renewable energy and efficiency by a third." 11-02 Experts: seafood could Collapse by 2050 (msnbc news) "If current trends. John the divine named paul Gorman (see sidebar interview). Nrpe quickly proved its effectiveness by joining together and helping educate such disparate and mainstream bodies as the. Catholic Conference (the policy agency for all Catholic bishops, clergy and parishes the national council of Churches of Christ (a federation of Protestant, eastern Orthodox and African-American denominations the coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (coejl, an alliance across all four Jewish movements) and. 9-01 health Problems from Pollution from A to z (niehs) Microbes that Benefit the Environment (Michigan State University) Dirtland describes different ways that certain microbes benefit the environment for humans. 2-01 Plan for Reducing Pollution (Green Party) Provides the Green Party's plan for reducing pollution, global warming, and creating a sustainable planet. 12-00 Pollution Resources (Lycos) Provides dozens of sources of information on water, earth, and air pollution. Report: we are Threatened (bbc news) "The most comprehensive survey ever into the state of the planet concludes that human activities threaten the earth's ability to sustain future generations." "Two services - fisheries and fresh water - are said shredder now to be well beyond levels.
7-04 Congressional Scorecard (Scorecard) Provides an environmental scorecard for members of the. 6-01 Earth day - a history (m) Provides a history of Earth day, celebrated in schools in the United States on April 22nd. (It is also celebrated globally on the Spring equinox.) 4-01 Environmental Advocacy news (GreenPeace. Org) Provides news related to pollution, sustainability, global warming, and other key environmental issues. 6-02 Environmental Citizen's Award goes to moyers (CommonDreams. Org) "On Wednesday, december 1, 2004, the center for health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School presented its fourth annual Global Environment Citizen Award to bill moyers. In presenting the award, meryl Streep, a member of the center board, said, 'through resourceful, intrepid reportage and perceptive voices from the forward edge of the debate, moyers has examined an environment under siege with the aim of engaging citizens.' " paper 3-05 Essay in Response.
perfumes, household disinfectants and the antidepressant Prozac." 06-07 -pollution Scorecard (Environmental Defense fund provides information about pollution in your community. Reports who is polluting, how to contact them, how bad the pollution is, how your community rates compared to others in your area, identifies the toxins involved and provides other useful information to fight pollution. American Society of Microbiology, provides online issues and information. Batteries - zinc-Air (m describes breakthrough air-zinc batteries for a pollution free and more energy efficient solution to storage of electricity. Bio-fuels From Genetics (m) "J. Craig Venter, who gained worldwide fame in 2000 when he mapped the human genetic code, is behind a new start-up called Synthetic Genomics, which plans to create new types of organisms that, ideally, would produce hydrogen, secrete nonpolluting heating oil or be able to break. Bush Strikes Out on the Environment (TWS. Org) Presents evidence that President Bush has not protected our air, water, or forests effectively.
Includes solar, wind, biofuels, and other sustainable energy sources that are alternatives to fossil fuels. Alternative energy businesses (Momentum Technologies - source guide). Provides listings of businesses by location, product type, business writing type, and business name. Alternative energy news (m - teuwen). Provides news, facts, statistics, treatments, symptoms, a glossary, and more. Alternative power Systems (m provides sources of products that provide alternative energy, such as wind energy. Org provides articles and sources of information by subject. News -Environment News (m provides news on methods to improve the environment, such as alternative fuels.
Essay about Environmental, pollution : Basic guidelines
Air Pollution, for ground Pollution, hazardous Materials, nuclear Waste. Pesticides, plastics, soil Pollution, water Pollution, also Try. Commuting Alternatives, electric Cars, energy Efficiency, fuel Cell Power. Global Warming, hybrid Vehicles, hydroelectric and wave power, sustainable development. Wind Power, lesson Plans, contaminants: How They move and Change (MicroWorlds). Describes how contaminants move and change in an ecosystem. Lists, alternative energy - by type of Information (m - teuwen). Provides news, facts, statistics, jobs, research, and more.