Such developments in computing are tantalising, says Boden, but they are a long way off creativity. Computers lack some key ingredients: autonomy, intentionality, consciousness, values, and emotions. Even the novel outputs of genetic algorithms do not constitute autonomy, because they are based on random changes, not deliberate choices. The key ingredients of true creativity require levels of operational complexity far beyond present computing capabilities. Boden concludes that the question whether computers can (eventually) be creative is currently unanswerable, but is still open. Computers may be struggling to be creative, but what about us? Surely human beings are good at being creative? Every day we respond to things others say or to the events of the day by inventing new combinations of words.
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Nevertheless they do incline us to the view that intentional awareness must play a significant role in highly complex creative activities. Unthinking reactions will not qualify developer as creativity. That last point leads directly to the question whether computers can be truly creative. They can produce novel compositions in music and art, and they can invent new strategies and winning combinations of moves in chess. Such activities have an appearance of creativity; but Margaret Boden is not impressed by them. She sees them as a tribute to the creativity of the programmer, not of the machine which performs the function. However, she is more impressed by genetic algorithms programs that can make random changes in their own basic rules. The random changes are then subject to a fitness selector, which keeps the best altered rules and discards others. In this way, program game development emulates biological evolution. A graphics program by karl Sims operates in this way to produce novel images which look unrelated to each other.
Without those years of preparation, the achievements of poincaré, darwin, or mozart would have been impossible. Blackburn tells us about a pianist who was complimented on his luck by a well-intentioned fan. Yes, he replied, and the more i practise, the luckier I get. There is also a common belief that creativity writings is hampered by conscious deliberation. Creative ideas are supposed to well up from the unconscious like spring water from subterranean strata. This idea was popular with the surrealists, and it also explains the victorian interest in automatic writing, where a pen is moved ostensibly without conscious control. It was given credibility by statements from some artists and composers, for example mozart, who said Whence my ideas come, i know not, nor can I force them. However, as reported in the essay by baumeister, Schmeichel and Dewall, evidence from psychological experiments points to the opposite conclusion: that conscious processes are integral to creative behaviour. It is difficult to generate real creativity in a laboratory setting, so the experimental results are admittedly not a proof.
There are also essays on psychological experiments and teaching, and more. The compilers of the anthology are to be congratulated on its range and variety. Portrait Of a young Woman, vaite (Jeanne) goupil, paul gaugin, 1896, some myths about creativity are scrutinised and deflated. One romantic tradition emphasises the flash of inspiration the eureka! Moment when the act of creation allegedly occurs. Simon Blackburn is very sceptical about accounts of creativity which make the process sound miraculous. He points to the years of learning, study and practice which preceded compositions which are said to have arrived out of the blue.
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Subscribe now, books, les reid has a creative response to a book on the philosophy of creativity. Education is a politically contentious subject. Systems of education are continually being proposed, implemented, regretted and reorganised. There are arguments over religious segregation, the usefulness of various subjects, rote learning versus other methods of learning, the role of the teacher, and. Disagreements about purpose and methods in education have a long history: Plato and Aristotle held very different views, and philosophers as diverse as Locke, rousseau, kant, russell and Rorty have added their own ideas. One facet of education, however, seems to have escaped did controversy, and now enjoys general assent creativity. Today we expect schools at all levels to nurture creativity, especially in literary composition and art, but also in problem-solving, critical thinking, media production, music, and dance.
We seem to think that it is good to cultivate creativity, not only because personal development requires self-expression, but also because society is changing all the time and so we value the ability to respond to new challenges creatively. We want our education system to produce individuals who do not merely replicate ideas, but are capable of having new ones, whether commercial, artistic, scientific, or otherwise. So creativity is a good thing. But what kind of a thing is creativity? The essays in this anthology explore many of its aspects, presenting familiar philosophical issues in less familiar contexts, which is an encouragement to take a fresh look at those issues and perhaps rethink our opinions. Creativity is looked at in relation to literature, music, audience response, character, imagination, the unconscious.
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