New York: Little, brown, 1951. Marginal Notes on the Inner lives of people with Cluttered Apartments in the east seventies. Rereadings: seventeen writers revisit books they love. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. With love and squalor: 14 writers respond to the work. Kip Kotzen and Thomas Beller.
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They each employed tricks and gimmicks similar to salingers, but neither has endured to the degree salinger has. I am interested in the ways in which Salinger imitates and explodes these tropes, and what role his aligning himself with these perceived hacks plays in his critical reception. The overall goal is to examine. Salinger as a popular success and a critical difficulty, putting language to the literary trickery that renders his work at once enigmatic and completely captivating. Works Cited Bidney, martin. The aestheticist Epiphanies. Salinger: Bright-hued Circles, Spheres, and Patches; Elemental joy and pain. The new York review of books 21 Jun. New York: Little, brown, 1961. The catcher in the rye.
Are the tricks in the earlier stories more transparent, less well pulled-off? Are they more gimmicky? Many of the early stories, including The varioni Brothers, Im Crazy, and Slight Rebellion Off summary Madison, contain precursors and initial sketches of characters and situations that feature prominently in The catcher in the rye and the Glass family stories, allowing for the tracking of specific. As part of my investigation of Salingers early work, i plan to visit and perform research at Princetons Firestone library, which houses a sizeable archive of letters and stories, including several unpublished manuscripts. To contextualize salinger in the tradition of the American short story, i will examine him against two of his contemporaries—Ring Lardner and William Saroyan. Both Lardner (whom Salinger refers to with admiration in Catcher and zooey) and Saroyan once enjoyed popular success as short story smiths while retaining a kind of hack status in the literary world. Lardner was known first as a sportswriter, and Saroyan was also a playwright and pop songwriter.
In this way, salinger is not giving us the typical things to interpret—characters dont stand for things; plots are abandoned ambiguously—which may point to the frustrating quality pdf that has made salinger difficult from a critical standpoint and has contributed to many critics dismissals of Salinger. Theres a quality of beating readers to the punch and explicitly showing them how his effects are achieved. Moreover, by working in salon framed miniature, salinger does not take on the big social issues that often invite literary analysis—george Steiner once complained that Salinger demands of his readers nothing in the way of literacy or political interest. When thinking about Salinger as troublesome to critics, it is important to note that, conversely, critics and analysts were difficult for Salinger. His works contain a number of scathing portraits of academia and psychoanalysis, including the pompous Lane coutell bragging about his A-grade English paper in Franny, the hopeless teachers at Holden caulfields lousy prep school, and the amateur-analyst figure of Muriels mother, who tries to diagnose. Salingers work seems to favor a phenomenological approach, emphasizing the experience of reading over interpretation, one that might win the embrace of Holden, who reflects, Im quite illiterate, but I read a lot (24). In analyzing Salinger as a purveyor of tricks, who in some ways defies critical study, i will look at his earlier, uncollected stories to track the development of mastery. How does Salingers playful technique change over time?
In the opening section of zooey, buddy says, what Im about to offer isnt really a short story at all but a sort of prose home movie ( Franny and zooey 47). Buddys proclamation of documentary is complicated by the fact that we know this is fictional story by salinger and, even within the logic of the Glass family chronicling, its clear that Buddy was not there for the events of the story. Buddy, like his trickster creator, seems to be almost daring the reader to accuse him of invention. Salinger also incorporates visual tricks in his narratives in what Martin Bidney calls aesthetic epiphanies (117). Bidney talks about how the turning point in a salinger story is often accompanied by a game of fort-da with a coded aesthetic object, such as the blue-coated Phoebe disappearing and reappearing as she goes round and round the carousel in Catcher, or the little. Other forms of games and tricks in Salinger include the use of framing devices, the employment of a play-set New York that is at once familiar and fake, and the winking italicization of words and syllables to inflect layers of meaning. By using literary tricks and games and playfully drawing attention to his fictions constructedness, salinger leaves his secrets hiding in plain sight.
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Shortly following the near-universal acclaim of The catcher in the rye, salingers Franny and zooey and subsequent installments meditating on the Glass family were met with increasingly critical resentment and weariness of Salingers devotion to a set of precocious, misunderstood geniuses, so much so that. Since then, many authors and fans have sought to redeem Salinger from a writerly perspective (Samuels; Kotzen and Beller while his status in the world of literary criticism remains uncertain. What qualities do readers (especially writer-readers) admire in Salingers stories? And what about these qualities and others make salingers body of work difficult or unappealing from a critical standpoint? Devotees often speak of Salingers writing in terms of its mysterious, heightened quality—janet Malcolm notes its fundamental fantastic character, and Adam Gopnick refers to the recurrence of childlike enchantment in the work. I plan to explore the mysterious, heightened quality of Salingers writing by putting language to the techniques and devices that contribute umn to a sense of the fantastical.
And I propose to talk about these techniques and devices in the context of writerly tricks, games, and pranks. Perhaps much of what lends Salingers work its magical character is, in fact, magic, in the sense of sleight of hand and intentional artifice and trickery. Salingers writing is full of feints and winks and a willingness to play. For example, salingers signature snappy vernacular dialogue often takes on properties of theatrical improvisation through which characters play off one another with the aim of keeping the conversation going to reach a point of emotional payoff. This is particularly evident in the exchange between seymour and Sybil in a perfect day for Bananafish, in which the collaborative back-and-forth between the two players leads to the creation of the myth of the bananafish. A kind of prank salinger plays on the reader is the couching of his narratives in the authorship of the fictional Buddy Glass and the creation of a glass superstructure of linked stories.
Winters Tale has been particularly overlooked, and that Stephen and Blooms frequent corrupted references to this text have important implications for. Ulysses linguistic and artistic schematics. Firstly, the Bloom family unit is uncannily similar to Shakespeares Sicilian royalty, most notably in the unspoken grief of both protagonists lost sons, and the ways in which the authors address the modes of atonement and recovery. Indeed, it is not unreasonable to draw connections between Stephens cynical discourse on wives in Scylla and Charybdis and Blooms museum musings in Lestrygonians as the kings competing theories of female sexuality. Both men think and verbalize permutations of leontes angry ramblings in Act i scene ii, and both scenes are contextualized by discussions of linguistic and artistic control—here, one and the same—and perhaps more importantly, explicit discussions of attaining freedom through those mediums. While i have less experience with.
Pericles and Cymbeline and their particular employment in joyces work, i think there is a lot of potential supplemental material on the gender politics and the place of women in Ulysses larger schematics on the role of mastery of language in self-presentation. As yet, i am uncertain of the role of scholarly research in my thesis plans. The only substantive body of work on this topic as yet is largely concerned with Calibans potential Irishness, and the difficult dynamics of artistic self-definition for a colonized island. My planned methodology is, admittedly, largely internal to joyce and Shakespeares work, even closed-off from much current scholarship. I hope to counteract this potential danger with a firm grounding in the precise intellectual history surrounding Shakespeares romances in early twentieth century Ireland. Model Proposal 2 Pranks, winks, and Knowing Artifice:. Salinger as a master Trickster Im quite illiterate, but I read a lot. Salinger, The catcher in the rye while enduringly popular with the American reading public, particularly young people and aspiring writers, the works. Salinger have, somewhat perplexingly, failed to generate much in the way of serious scholarship.
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I propose that this brief, yet deeply intertextual moment is a critical lens through which to examine the rest. I plan to trace this paradigm first through the telemachiad, honing in on joyces combined incorporation of Ariels song into Stephens extended meditation on a corpse on the beach at the close of Proteus. Aeolus is likewise a point of interest as it most directly addresses joyces preoccupation with rhetoric and style, and Stephens linguistic reticence, self-consciousness, and susceptibility to persuasion. I also plan to examine the various mentions. Tempest in Scylla and Charybdis, particularly those focusing on Prospero and his powers of artistry. This helps to open revelation up a conversation about Shakespeares other romances. Of the already minimal scholarly discussion of these plays, there is still less. Pericles, cymbeline, and, winters Tale than, tempest. I contend that the relevance.
A thing most brutish, i endowd thy purposes. With words that made them known. (Shakespeare,.2.354-358) and Calibans reply, almost a second introduction, this time by himself: you taught me language; and my profit ont. Is, i know how to curse. The red plague rid you. For learning me your language! Language is power, not only as a marker thesis of self-expression, but as one of the civilization and, perhaps more importantly, artistry. It is Prosperos command of language, much like mulligans, that enables him to continue this twisted master-slave, master-student relationship.
portrait it produces is often unlikable; it depicts an accurate exterior at odds with the interior and the desired self-perception. Romantic art demonstrates the artists ability, creating an image too beautiful to be representative of either the subjects exterior or interior. Yet an interpretation that prioritizes joyces engagement with Shakespeare provokes prioritizing Caliban as a key touchstone for Stephen throughout the novel; if Caliban is the focal point, rather than Wilde, the concern shifts to the—far more comprehensive—question of Stephens desire for mastery of self-expression. Both Stephen and Caliban are highly aware of their relative lack of control over language, and a consequent lack of control over self-presentation. Two passages seem particularly relevant to this method of analysis: Prosperos introduction of Caliban, i took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour. One thing or other: when thou didst not, savage, know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like.
More specifically, i propose to explore the ways in which joyce uses Shakespeares romances to articulate the dynamic between mastery over language and mastery over artistic self-expression of the interior. I plan to begin at the beginning—that resumes is, with Telemachus, and a seemingly offhand quip by buck mulligan: The rage of Caliban at not seeing his face in a mirror, he said. If Wilde were only alive to see you! I contend that this early reference to caliban frames Stephens struggle for independence as an artist as one also for control over the presentation of his own image through language. Joyce introduces Shakespeares monster through the gregarious Mulligan, a man whose flashy linguistic and textual fluency overwhelms Stephens more cautious persona. The remark is characteristically intertextual, a rephrasing of Oscar Wildes epigraph. The picture of Dorian Gray, a piece of brief yet incisive commentary on the tension between realist and avant-garde art: The nineteenth century dislike of realism is the rage of Caliban seeing his own face in a glass. The nineteenth century dislike of Romanticism is the rage of Caliban not seeing his own face in a glass (Wilde 3).
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Model Proposal 1, this Islands Mine: Shakespeares presentation Romances and the power of Language. Ulysses, much has been made of the role of Shakespeares tragedies in James joyces. Ulysses, particularly the allusive, even allegorical role. Hamlet in shaping the trajectory and consciousness of Stephen Dedalus. Yet surprisingly little has been said on joyces relationship with Shakespeares romances (namely, pericles; Prince of Tyre, cymbeline, the winters Tale, and, the tempest ). Very little scholarly work has discussed either the direct or implicit references to these later plays, and even less has addressed their structural relevance to joyces work. Hamlet may be the primary Shakespearean reference point for. Ulysses, seemingly surface allusions to the romances are in fact essential to the novels interests in redemption, art and most importantly language.